We start by reviewing key research on approaches to learning (deep vs. surface approaches), followed by an introduction to a unique and important type of learning in the twenty-first century: ill-structured problem solving. We then discuss the intersection between these two research areas, and contrast deep and surface learning patterns in both processes and products of ill-structured problem solving. After presenting the patterns, we discuss how educators can promote deep learning in ill-structured problem solving by addressing various underlying factors (e.g., prior knowledge, motivation, and beliefs).