The history of disability has been a growing subfield of medieval studies since the early 2000s. Sitting at the crossroads of the social history of medicine, history of societies, and history of mentalities, the study of disability contributes to our understanding of various phenomena related to medieval societies and their norms, practices, and values. This article first introduces theoretical models informing approaches to the subject and then medieval concepts relevant to disability, which diverge from ours. Central topics of today’s scholarship and its source-base are then briefly discussed. Because disability history is still a relatively young field of scholarship, the potential for fresh scholarship must be regarded as considerable. Potential future orientations are suggested at the conclusion.