This essay discusses Maya cosmological views and their perceptions of nature during the early modern period (c.1400–1800). Many Maya groups adopted Catholic practices as a result of Spanish evangelization efforts, but they also continued to rely on prior traditions from the Classic (c.250–900 CE) and Post-Classic eras (c.900–1500 CE) that emphasized profound connections with the natural world. Classic Mayas viewed the world as an animate space where natural features possessed a sacred essence. Mountains and caves represented potent sacred areas, which served as places to connect with deities and as domains for the Maya mountain-owner spirits. These capricious beings shaped Maya interactions with the landscape. They served as the caretakers of the natural world, yet could also disrupt harvests and livestock or cause illnesses.