This chapter documents global conditions and trends with respect to urban crime and violence. It forms the basis for the policy responses that are presented in Chapter 4 and recommendations as to ways forward that are advanced in Chapter 10. In examining crime and violence, the analytical framework presented in Chapter 2 is used by focusing on vulnerability, risk factors and impacts at the global, national, local urban, community, household and individual levels. It must be emphasized from the outset that the topic areas covered in this and the other chapters on crime and violence involve vast and rapidly evolving literatures. This is one measure of the importance of the subjects to individuals, states and the global community. This also means that comprehensive review of the field is not feasible in a few chapters, nor is this the intent. Rather, the aim is to provide an assessment of conditions and trends, as well as policies and strategies, which are fundamental to the creation of safer and more secure cities relative to the prevention, reduction and mitigation of crime and violence. The chapter is divided into five sections.