In the spring of 868, a disagreement broke out between Charles the Bald and Bishop Hincmar of Laon, the nephew of Hincmar of Rheims. 1 In this confrontation, which resulted in a legal dispute, Hincmar of Rheims took sides with his nephew and wrote three legal opinions for the Synod of Pîtres in 868: the so-called Quaterniones, defending the ‘church’ property against Charles the Bald’s claim; the so-called Rotula, providing supplementary legal evidence and the Admonitio, drawing the king’s attention to the commitments he had made to the ‘church’. 2