The wide range of environmental, social and economic issues presented in this book underscore just how complex the question of energy crop sustainability can seem at times. While energy cropping can produce measurable benefits in terms of climate change mitigation, ecosystem health and socio-economic development, it can also lead to unsustainable impacts such as deforestation, degradation and dispossession. Furthermore, many of these impacts are surrounded by a high degree of uncertainty and differing stakeholder values. This can often make it difficult to see a clear pathway forward that maximises the potential benefits of energy cropping while protecting against risks of serious environmental and social damage.