Upon its adoption in December 1936, Soviet leaders hailed the new Constitution as the most democratic in the world. Western scholars and citizens have long scoffed at this claim, noting that the mass repression of 1937–1938 followed the adoption of the so-called Stalin Constitution. While the goal of this study is not to address these competing claims, the draft Constitution should be seen in the context of many leaders, including Stalin, feeling that the revolution had brought about radical changes in Soviet society, which required the re-conceptualization of certain groups’ roles in Soviet society and the Constitution to be rewritten to reflect this new balance of power. Collectivization was a “fact,” rapid industrialization was a “fact,” and Soviet power was a “fact.” 1 As a result of these achievements, the 1934 Party Congress was referred to as the “Congress of Victors,” and this victorious language is reflected in the press coverage surrounding the release of the draft Constitution two years later.