It is no longer possible, if it ever was, to ignore noncitizenship. Liberal democratic analyses till now have largely been citizenist. That is, they have focused on citizens, or people insofar as they relate to States as citizens. Efforts to address problems of global justice, including with regard to migration, have mostly focused on expanding citizenship’s scope. This fails to account for the reality of another sort of special relationship, that of ‘noncitizenship’. This book argues for the recognition of noncitizenship as an analytical category as fundamental to the liberal State as citizenship. The two are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may well relate with a particular State both as citizens and as noncitizens.