In this introductory chapter, the objective, structure and theoretical foundation of the book were presented. Food education has been increasingly required in many countries as a counter-measure to various food system and health-related issues, as well as the gastro-anomic situation in which contemporary eaters are confused by the overabundance of conflicting dietary norms. The objective of this book is to construct a theory and methods of food education by addressing the fundamental problems regarding its very components, namely the nutritionistic tendency and the absence of ethical/educational philosophy. Theoretically, the emerging sociological and ethical theories, in addition to conventional nutritional and social psychological approaches, were employed to consolidate an epistemological and ontological basis of food education. Empirically, the major analytical focus was put on food education in Japan and France, two countries of political and theoretical ‘prototypes’ in the East and the West.