Slavophilism, Pan-Slavism, and Eurasianism are probably the most well-known and well-studied ideologies on Russia’s “uniqueness.” Because the first two insist on Russia’s Slavic identity and solidarity with its Slavic brothers, and the third on Russia’s Eurasian destiny, all are seen as fostering the country’s Sonderweg away from Europe. But this is a misleading conclusion: even if Slavophilism and Pan-Slavism condemn the Romano-Germanic world, they believe that Russia embodies the authentic Europe – the Byzantine one. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, another doctrinal attempt to advocate for Russia’s full identification with Europe has developed, that of Aryanism.