This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes the contradictory effects of the spread of new waves of microfinance among the hitherto financially excluded in Andhra Pradesh (AP), starting with the development of state supported micro-credit institutions in the 1990s. It focuses on Arunachal Pradesh which is outside the core of states that are usually at the heart of debates about agrarian change in India. The book presents rural labour which is engaged in non-agricultural as much as in agricultural work. Drawing on fieldwork in north-eastern Tamil Nadu, they show that much rural labour is forced to be 'dynamic': switching occupations, migrating off and on, and commuting varying distances. It examines a different aspect of international finance that is very difficult to research: the use of international financial channels and institutions to hide the surpluses of Indian capital.