As the success of contemporary tech giants demonstrates, not only can modern ICT (information and communication technologies) provide ample new solutions and services with a high value to society, but the very basis of the success of the contemporary technology and other industries is fundamentally based on user co-production. Technologies and institutions that make it possible to transform the vast user-generated input into socially and economically valuable products and services have become the key ingredient of the economic and social change (Von Hippel, 2016). 2