In 2020, Southeast Asia recorded a population of 673 million, expecting an increase to 717 million by 2030 and 741 million by 2035. The region’s ageing population will have nearly doubled, from 7.73% (2015) to 15.49% (2035), equalling the global average. This chapter discusses demographic shifts, noting simultaneous increases in both Gross Domestic Product and health expenditures, but the disparity in funds allocated to health across the countries. Public and primary health services are mainly focussed on non-communicable diseases and maternal and childcare, yet despite vulnerability, aged care has remained a low priority. Admittedly, most countries in the region have formulated and implemented national ageing policies and programmes. However, they provide insufficient support for and fail to meet the needs of an ageing population. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed gaps in health, social and welfare systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden and cost of care tend to fall on low-wage, informal workers, particularly women and young people. To address these challenges, national healthy ageing policies and programmes, including life-course immunisation, require purposeful, committed action with crucial consideration given to upskilling, capacity building, and strengthening of healthcare systems.