This chapter reviews the implementation of the recommendations in the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing in the countries of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Despite shared common Soviet history, these five countries differ in their unique demographic, economic, and cultural contexts. Central Asian countries have relatively young population age structures; albeit, the importance of population ageing and its dynamics cannot be neglected at the state level as mitigation and elimination of the upcoming negative consequences and utilisation of potential opportunities require timely action through the implementation of corresponding policy interventions. The five countries have implemented different approaches in response to the ageing-related challenges. In order to reveal the unique challenges and potential opportunities of population ageing in the studied countries, the dynamics of population development are analysed and followed by the assessment of the main health and social indicators related to population ageing. After revealing the challenges and opportunities of ageing, the chapter analyses the progress made towards achieving the objectives set by the Madrid Plan based on the reports submitted by Central Asian countries every five years during the four consecutive reviews and appraisal cycles since 2007.