ABSTRACT

Multilateralism is practice in the first place. There are multiple multilateralisms even though they share common goals for transnational governance. This is mainly due to the multiple practices in various communities in the world where conditions, cultures, and circumstances may differ. Different forms of multilateralism are defined by their respective anchoring practice, that is, the practice that makes other practices possible. This chapter makes a comparative study of the three types of multilateralism since the end of the World War II, namely hegemonic multilateralism, institutional multilateralism, and relational multilateralism. It is found that the anchoring practice is exercise of power for hegemonic multilateralism, making and implementation of rules for institutional multilateralism, and building and maintenance of harmonious relations for relational multilateralism. In prospect, hegemonic multilateralism is the most unlikely, while institutional and relational multilateralism will continue and may ideally complement each other. A rule-based and relation-tuned multilateralism may be more effective and resilient.