Zimbabwe has undergone a number of intense governance changes as it has progressed from the colonial to the postcolonial period. These include initiatives to centralize, decentralize, recentralize and democratize the governance of natural resources, as well as economic and land reform policies that have had far-reaching effects. Despite a multitude of statutory laws and policies overlaying existing customary rules, resource degradation continues and pathways towards sustainable natural resource use and the equitable accrual of benefits to local communities remain unclear. This calls for a well-defined resource governance framework that ensures both effective conservation and the enhancement of livelihoods.