Proteomics (the study of the structure and function of proteins expressed by an organism) and metabolomics (the study of small, low molecular-weight metabolites and their cellular processes) are rapidly evolving disciplines that have great potential to provide fundamental insights into the biology of the first 1,000 days of child growth and development. The study of individual proteins and metabolites has a long tradition, but a collective approach to their study came recently. The terms proteome and metabolome were first mentioned in the published scientific literature in 1996 [1] and 1998 [2], respectively. German botanist Hans Winkler (1877–1945) originated the related term genome more than seven decades earlier [3].