ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the first 1,000 days of life as a critical window for the improvement of child growth and development. More recently, the preconception period has also been recognized as crucial, especially in populations where there are high levels of undernutrition. In addition to nutrition-specific interventions, counseling that encourages both recommended birth intervals 440and a delayed age of first conception, have been emphasized as important factors indirectly affecting maternal and fetal nutritional status. Since the early 1900s, researchers have reported associations of the time between two consecutive pregnancies and adverse birth outcomes [1]. Observational studies then and since have shown adverse outcomes to be associated with both short and long time intervals.