Chronic malnutrition refers to a process of suboptimal nutrition, which is the result of nutrient needs not being met and/or suffering from disease or infection, which continues over a prolonged period of time. Undernutrition has several short- and longer-term consequences due to the effects of accumulated nutritional deficits on growth, health, and development, including higher morbidity and mortality, increased risk of noncommunicable diseases, poorer school performance, and lower income earning potential due to suboptimal cognitive and physical development early in life.