The chapter starts by listing some of the many initiatives that aim to put the citizen in charge of how data about them is used. It points out that the large number of these initiatives demonstrates the importance of this issue, but also that it has resulted in a fragmented marketplace with competing technical approaches and processes.

It then describes how Open & Agile Smart Cities is working with many of these initiatives to develop a minimal interoperability mechanism on personal data management (MIM4). This will identify an agreed set of capabilities to enable the different solutions to be compared, a common legal framework that all can sign up to, and a technical requirement that will enable “good enough” interoperability between them and thus help to bring consistency into the marketplace.