Biostatistics plays a major role in providing scientific information for vital decision-making in health planning, clinical and public health research, and beyond. Modern decision-making, be it for an individual patient, hospitals, cluster of people, countries, or regions, is mostly based on biostatistical methods to improve the timeliness, quality, and accuracy of information and decisions. However, the quality of biostatistics training in developing countries is abysmally low. This chapter discusses the essentials of biostatistics and the need to build capacity in this field in developing countries.