Dr. W. A. Shewhart initiated the basic work on quality control by making a distinction between chance or common causes and assignable or special causes of variation. By locating and eliminating the special causes of variation, a process may be brought under statistical quality control. For this purpose, he developed graphical techniques, known as control charts, based on the types of data available in manufacturing processes. These charts are also referred to as Shewhart control charts in the modern literature. In this chapter, we discuss the basics of Shewhart control charts, their statistical theories, and applications with suitable illustrations. In addition, we explain capability analysis for variable real-life data. This chapter is expected to be of particular interest to those who look for high-quality performance in both the manufacturing and service sectors.