There are fundamental differences in frequentist and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference, especially in their view of and use of probability. This chapter compares and contrasts the two approaches and mentions other statistical perspectives, focusing on issues most relevant to the analysis and interpretation of forensic evidence. It provides an overview of key issues in forensic science and the relevance of inferential philosophies in resolving these issues. It reviews the three most common approaches to assessing the probative value of forensic evidence: expert opinion on hypotheses, two-stage procedures (“matches” followed by an assessment of their significance), and likelihood ratios and Bayes factors.