As discussed in Chapter 1, we divided the Superfund program into six elements in order to estimate its future cost. In the preceding chapters, we focused on the two core elements of the Superfund program that account for the direct costs of cleaning up sites-the removal program and the remedial program-while also addressing the cost of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site assessment efforts as part of the discussion of how sites are listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). In this chapter, we turn our attention to the other three major elements of the Superfund program: (1) program staff, management, and support, (2) program administration, and (3) other programs and agencies, which we loosely group together under the umbrella of Superfund support activities and programs. In FY 1999 these activities accounted for just over a third of the total dollars ($540 million of $1.54 billion) spent by EPA to implement the Superfund program.