Post-construction activities have not historically received the same level of attention as the remedial components of the Superfund program. In large measure, this is because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has, understandably, placed a higher priority on implementing remedies than on the activities necessary after remedies are in place. In addition, the term “construction completion” is often misinterpreted to mean that site cleanup is done. In fact, a number of important activities are necessary to ensure that the physical remedies in place (1) achieve the cleanup goals envisioned for the site and (2) remain protective of public health and the environment. These activities typically include the long-term operation of groundwater pumpand-treat systems and the maintenance of landfill caps, the cost of which can be significant, especially at mega sites.