Given that national parks and other conservation areas cover only 12 to 13 per cent of the earth’s surface in total, it is clear that these areas alone will not ensure the survival of species and ecological communities, even without the impacts of accelerated global change. It is crucial, therefore, that lands outside national reserve networks be managed in ways that allow as much biodiversity as possible to be maintained. The in situ conservation of species outside protected areas, where the majority of them occur, is a seriously neglected aspect of biodiversity conservation and in the face of global change it must demand much further attention from governments and conservation agencies.This approach is also known as off-reserve management (Hale and Lamb, 1997).