Introduction A building site can be a hostile place and its impact on the environment and its neighbours in particular is likely to be orders of magnitude greater than the completed building. It is the responsibility of the ‘principal contractor’, usually the site manager, to minimize these impacts to an acceptable level. There are numerous activities carried out on any given site, from making tea to piling, which vary enormously in their potential impact. Many of these activities are potentially disruptive and some can involve generating noise or pollution to land, watercourses or air. Some of these are governed by statute and, in England and Wales for example, will fall under the ambit of the Environmental Protection Act and require permission under the Pollution Prevention and Control Regulations with licences issued by the Environment Agency. Others will fall under the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act and the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations.