Humanity faces many challenges. It is certain that the world population will continue to increase throughout the 21st century, especially in the developing countries. It is also clear that the countries of the world will choose economic growth as a preferred development trajectory. The increase in human numbers and economic activity will inevitably result in a greater appropriation of the Earth’s resources. The increasing demand for resources will result in the emergence of a rising price trend for many resources as they become more difficult to extract and the price of energy continues to increase. This is in contrast with the experience of the 20th century where demand was invariably matched by supply and energy prices were relatively low. We may witness more wars, where countries or power blocks try to ensure access to energy, mineral, water or biotic resources. This is especially the case for resources that are strategically important, not just oil and gas, but also metals that have military or technological significance and are found in very few locations worldwide. Obtaining sufficient supplies of phosphate minerals may prove to be increasingly difficult as the century unfolds. The complex and sophisticated nature of our economies also carries with it the penalty of increasing vulnerability. However, we have the intellectual capacity and the material means to deal with all of these issues. The problem is one of allocating these resources appropriately. Human ingenuity is the most powerful tool we have at our disposal, but that ingenuity needs to be empowered with financial backing and the necessary conditions have to be created by governments to educate people with the appropriate skills and to encourage this entrepreneurship to flourish. The concern must now be that with the lack of availability of credit, we may lose the opportunity of a lifetime to move humanity onto a new and sustainable development path. Only national governments have the ability to provide such a stimulus.