In this, the concluding chapter of Volume 1, the policies and programmes needed to dramatically reduce the demand for energy relative to business-as-usual scenarios are briefly outlined. The demand for energy depends on the demand for energy services as well as the efficiency with which these services are provided. The demand for energy services in turn depends on the human population and the average GDP per person, with the particular mix of energy services demanded dependent on economic development, energy prices and lifestyle factors. All of these factors are addressed in this chapter. Policies and programmes to promote lower growth in the human population and in average GDP/person are outlined, as well as policies to dramatically reduce the energy intensity of the global economy. Dramatic improvements in energy efficiency can be largely achieved with existing technologies, but important areas for further research and development are identified here.