There is widespread consensus and concern that many anthropogenic activities are unsustainable. In other words, our consumption of resources and generation of waste exceed the regenerative and assimilative capacities of ecosystems globally. Thus, we run the risk of altering these ecosystems. In many cases, such as biodiversity loss, these alterations are irreversible. But why do we care and how should we respond? We care because we rely on ecosystems for a variety of goods and services that form the foundation of any economy. We may respond by enacting policies that enhance the provision of these goods and services. However, the effective design of such policies requires significant care as there is great potential for perverse or unforeseen impacts. Furthermore, the high level of public investment in environmental and conservation programs justifies examination of how to effectively utilize those funds. This chapter explores issues associated with policies targeting the provision of ecosystem services, particularly those targeting agricultural lands and agrobiodiversity.