Frederick Billings, president of the Northern Pacific Railroad, was involved in the creation of Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks (Spence, 1999, p36). Billings believed ‘commerce could serve the cause of conservation by bringing visitors to a site worthy of preservation’, where nature worship replaced other forms of religion (Spence, 1999, p37). In Canada, friendly societies, mechanics’ institutes, Sunday schools, temperance societies and many employers organized outings by steamer and rail (Jasen, 1995, p127). In Australia, the opening of the Blue Mountains to tourism was an unintended side effect of the railway line to Bathurst (Davidson and Spearritt, 2000, p15). A paddle steamer especially fitted for ‘excursionists’ or day-trippers encouraged the development of Queenscliff and Sorrento (Sydney suburbs) from 1872. In 1896, the first road map of Victoria was produced, an increasing number being produced from the 1920s (Davidson and Spearritt, 2000, pp163-164). After World War II, the motorcar became the major means of transportation in Australia and North America (Davidson and Spearritt, 2000, pp34-35).