A catchment-based and integrated approach to land use, water, and ecosystems will be essential for a knowledge-based balancing of water among different ecological processes and the provision of ecosystem services. It will be necessary to develop the scientific and administrative capability and capacity to analyze the conditions necessary for securing social and ecological resilience to change in ecosystems, including in those that are particularly vulnerable to large or episodic events, such as drought, storms, and floods, and those that are subject to multiple and cumulative impacts. Climate change raises questions about how the future use of water and land for agriculture will constrain the ability of ecosystems to respond. That is, will water and land uses adversely affect ecosystem resilience and responses to climate change?