Access to water for productive and consumptive uses, poverty reduction, and sustainable livelihoods for rural people are all intimately linked [well established]. Apart from labor and land, water is one of the most important resources of poor people in rural areas. Improving access to water and productivity in its use can contribute to greater food security, nutrition, health status, income, and resilience in income and consumption patterns. In turn, this can contribute to other improvements in financial, human, physical, and social capital, simultaneously alleviating multiple dimensions of poverty. Indeed, the productivity of other assets often depends on water use, while sustainable patterns of water use can contribute to the conservation of all natural resources.