The key principles of participation set out in the previous chapter emphasized the importance of building trusting relationships between decision-makers and stakeholders, rather than concentrating on particular techniques. The case studies in this chapter illustrate the often long and arduous task of building trust, which can be lost all too quickly and be hard to regain. The case studies cover two studies of participatory planning and two of the development of successful partnerships, as follows:

• An initiative to develop a collaborative vision for the future of the island of Texel on the north-eastern coast of the Netherlands met with some initial local opposition. The agenda of Texel 2030 was seen as having been set by outsiders, and it presented a challenge to the existing power structure. But five years later the debate about the future continues within a range of local forums, and several practical projects on sustainability are being developed. The lack of leadership from the local municipality, which was ambivalent about the original project, has resulted in mistrust between politicians and the community that they represent.