TNCs are key players in terms of development activity, and the perception that they operate in a vacuum between ineffective national laws and non-existent or unenforceable international laws has heightened concerns about the correct reach and effectiveness of environmental regulations, especially where TNCs are operating in developing countries. (Fowler, 1995)1

If anything, this quote underestimates the lawlessness, and hence the criminality of transnational corporations (TNCs), particularly in regard to indigenous peoples. This reality has emerged throughout this book and it is helpful to review the various points made so far in order to reinforce this claim.