A dramatic expansion in biofuel production capacity worldwide will require substantial new investments in biofuels and related infrastructure. Existing experience with current feedstocks and conversion technologies can provide useful insight into the infrastructure that will be needed for next-generation cellulosebased biofuel production in the coming years. The experience of the few countries where major biofuel developments have been under way for more than a decade will be particularly useful to those countries that are just beginning their own biofuel initiatives.