The risk factor research movement has been characterised by a number of distinct research strands, each with their own theoretical and methodological bases and biases, which, in turn, have influenced the nature of the research and the conclusions drawn from it. In the previous chapter, these constituent strands of (RFR) were described and their differences and limitations/implications explored. In this chapter the focus shifts to a closer inspection and critical evaluation of the methodologies, scope and conclusions of the major longitudinal risk factor studies in England and Wales.