The first part of this book set out the various theoretical tensions and empirical uncertainties concerning intensive community programmes. While the ISSP case study and Chapter 7 have developed the empirical evidence and presented the emerging lessons, a number of wider, more theoretical concerns remain outstanding. These concerns encompass the difficulties of targeting, the dangers of labelling and net-widening, and the growing emphasis upon electronic forms of monitoring. There is also a lack of clarity as to how the effectiveness and value of intensive community programmes should be judged. While the theoretical foundations for intensive programmes are multifaceted, further thought needs to be given to which of the rationales should be prioritised and whether the programmes should be promoted as welfare-based interventions, proportionate interventions, risk management interventions and/or authoritarian interventions.