As was shown in Chapter 1, there were numerous attempts at developing intensive community programmes in England and Wales during the latter decades of the twentieth century, most notably the Intensive Matched Probation and After-Care Treatment (IMPACT), Intermediate Treatment (IT) and Intensive Probation (IP) initiatives. While these programmes were fairly short-lived, a more sustained initiative has materialised in the twenty-first century in the form of the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP). This programme, established by the Youth Justice Board (YJB) for England and Wales, is significantly more intensive than many previous initiatives and is multi-modal, combining supervision with surveillance in an attempt to ensure an appropriate balance between control and care. To assess whether ISSP was delivered in practice as intended in principle, and whether the objectives for ISSP were being met, the YJB commissioned a multi-dimensional evaluation of the first 41 schemes, conducted by the University of Oxford. Through a broad model of evaluation, involving a range of quantitative and qualitative techniques, it was hoped that the immediate and wider impact of ISSP would be captured.