The subject of partial loss is, for the purpose of clarity, dealt with in two chapters. This chapter will consider the nature of particular average loss, and Chapter 18 will consider extraordinary expenses, such as salvage charges, general average and particular charges, commonly referred to as sue and labour. Particular average losses are losses which are directly sustained by the subject matter insured caused by an insured peril, generally described as losses which lie where they fall. Salvage charges, general average and particular charges, on the other hand, are extraordinary expenses incurred in an emergency, as a consequence of damage caused by an insured peril. Though salvage charges are, strictly speaking, particular average losses and are recoverable as such1 as a loss caused by the peril which has necessitated the expenditure they are, nonetheless, extraordinary expenses and, therefore, may be more conveniently discussed together with general average and particular charges to which comparisons would have to be made.