The plans for postmethod pedagogies, proposed with different degrees of emphasis as outlined in chapter 9, are all based on a different way of looking at the problems and prospects of language teaching in the postmethod era. They call for substantial and sustained change in our perception of what constitutes language teaching and language teacher education. Educational change, like any other systemic change, involves both challenges and opportunities. Change of the kind postmethod pedagogy demands is beset with more than the normal share of difficulties because it involves not merely changing attitudes and beliefs, but also creating and maintaining favorable conditions for change. It also involves making hard choices. In such circumstances, there will always be a tendency to doubt the need for change, and to reject any proposal for change out of hand for any number of seemingly valid reasons.