Throughout history, numerous cultural groups have been irreversibly affected by the influence of dominant groups imposing cultural and communicative practices —sometimes to the extent of strategic linguistic annihilation. For instance, Fishman (2001) discussed Western culture and its powerful effect on indigenous peoples, cultures,

Correspondence: Mikaela L.Marlow, 5843 Ellison Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106; email: mmarlow@umail.ucsb.edu

Communication Yearbook 30, pp. 343-385

and languages. He suggested: “Today, the worldwide process of globalization of the economy, communication, and entertainment media…have threatened to sweep away everything locally authentic and different that may stand in their way… progress is revealed as taking three steps forward and two steps back…the struggle against languagein-culture decimation still goes on with little likelihood of early and clear triumph” (pp. xiii-xiv). Recent literature has established that indigenous languages have been rapidly decreasing, and current estimates suggest that, by 2100, nearly half of the world’s 6,500 languages may be extinct (Hotz, 2000). On the other hand, and in parallel with (if not, in some ways, in reaction to) increasing patterns of globalization, we have witnessed the resurrection and revitalization of many languages that have increased in their usage and prestige of late: Luxembourgish, Welsh, Irish, Estonian, Inuktitut, Faroese, and Catalan, to name a few.