ABSTRACT

Bullying, mobbing, and harassment are examples of the terms used to Rdescribe negative, aggressive, and unjust behavior directed either at peers in school or at workmates,

subordinates, or superiors in the workplace. The purpose of these intentionally aggressive

or hurtful forms of behavior is to harm, subjugate, or humiliate the victim. Scholars

regard bullying as a systematic and long-lasting subjection process, in which the

participants are not equally matched (e.g., Einarsen, 2000; Hazier & Miller, 2001;

Leymann, 1986; Naylor & Cowie, 1999; Olweus, 1978, 1993; Salmivalli, 1998; Vartia-

Väänänen, 2003).