The research process often focuses on comparisons. Communication theories and the hypotheses they generate frequently predict how two groups will diﬀer from each other. These groups may be deﬁned by sex or education (e.g., people with or without a college education) or perhaps how much they use the Internet (a little versus a lot). Or the groups may be artiﬁcially created for the purpose of the study, such as whether they are asked by a researcher to spend 30 minutes reading a print or an online version of the Los Angeles Times. Or the researcher may make predictions about how two diﬀerent stimuli (such as two TV programs or two persuasive messages) might aﬀect a person’s thoughts, attitudes, opinions, memory, or behavior diﬀerently.