Theories of gender generally focus on four different levels of explanation (Fig. 3.1):

1. Group level factors 2. Past social-environmental factors

social--environmental factors individual

Level 1, the group level of analysis, considers you to be a member of a group, either with XX chromosomes) or cultural (Latinas, members of the middle class, Southern Baptists, the social categories of female and male). Group level processes include biological and cultural evolution, which respectively shape the characteristics of biological groups (e.g., species and the two biological sexes) and cultural

groups(religiousgroups,ethnicgroups,thesociallydefinedcategories ofmaleandfemale).