The tradition of identifying particular MMPI and MMPI-2 items as critical extends at least as far back as a list developed by Hellman (Grayson, 1951). Items expressing serious pathology appeared together in a single list, without regard to the type of pathology that they might indicate. The intent was that symptomatic responses were to be taken seriously and followed up during interviews with either the patient or a knowledgeable informant (W.G.Dahlstrom & Welsh, 1960, Appendix G).