Studying a culture from within, that is, the expression of symptoms in a culture, provides one with descriptive data that is informative but less easy to compare across populations or cultures. Hence, studies with the MMPI and MMPI-2 are generally imposed-etic studies whereby the MMPI is administered to a target population in the attempt to identify differences between the target population and the normative MMPI sample so that adjustments can be made in how to use the instrument, interpret findings, and develop norms for the targeted population.