Emily Monti, a teenaged student from France who was attending a small pri­ vate college, enjoyed going shopping at the big department stores located in the downtown area of the large city where she lived. Unfortunately, even in the elegant and expensive areas where such stores were located, and particularly in the surrounding areas just a block or two away, there were a number of people panhandling (asking passing strangers on the street for money). On one occasion, a panhandler reached out toward Emily in a way

that she found threatening, and she became frightened and ran away. For many weeks after this incident, Emily didn’t venture far away from her home or school.