The object of policy research is to understand the policy world in terms of its patterns and idiosyncracies and to formulate explanations of our observations. Policy knowledge is constructed from the commonly used theoretical and conceptual frameworks, the constructs included in them, and the accumulated knowledge from previous studies (Smart, 2002). As developed in previous sections of the book, conceptual frameworks, theories, and models are beneficial to the design of studies in several ways. They provide a structure to the research process by identifying important constructs to be included in the study and by suggesting relationships among the constructs. Conceptual lenses help contribute to the accumulation of knowledge by providing a basis for comparing the results of a current study with previous findings within a logical and consistent framework (Smart, 2002)—in short, they help frame the way the researcher will approach the research study. To the extent that conceptual frameworks and theories are applied to important policy issues, they can also generate further research because they provide a useful structure for understanding policy problems and the usefulness of solutions.