Some conceptual lenses presented previously have focused on a more technical and rational, or functionalist, view of institutions-they are predicated on identifying individuals’ rational behavior in pursuit of clearly defined organizational goals. Broadly speaking, these lenses (e.g., policy stages, rational choice theory, production functions, cost-effectiveness analyses) have their roots in a positivist construction of knowledge. In recent decades, however, much dissatisfaction has been directed at dominant methods of studying political, organizational, and educational processes. Criticism suggests that these lenses have not been entirely satisfactory in explaining policy activity or in resolving social problems.